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Axis of evil Mission Accomplished State of the Union address United States House of Representatives elections, Texas gubernatorial election Presidential campaign Republican Party presidential primaries, Republican National Convention United States presidential election, Bush v. Gore United States presidential election, A Charge to Keep Decision Points Bush family.
Bush—Davis—Walker family political line Bush family Bush surname. Prescott Sheldon Bush. George Herbert Walker Bush m. George Walker Bush m. Robert P. David Lauren. The Family: First Ladies and Gentlemen of Texas. The Philippines is one of the two predominantly Roman Catholic From the census in , Christianity consisted of about Those who reported others or none composed 4.
Before the arrival of the Spaniards and the introduction of Roman Catholicism and Western culture in the 16th century, the indigenous Austronesian peoples of what is now called the Philippines were adherents of a syncretic religion composed of shamanistic Animism , Polytheism , Islam , Hinduism and Vajrayana Buddhism.
Early Philippine painting can be found in red slip clay mixed with water designs embellished on the ritual pottery of the Philippines such as the acclaimed Manunggul Jar. It has been proven that by BC, the making of pottery was practiced throughout the archipelago. Early Austronesian peoples, especially in the Philippines, started making pottery before their Cambodian neighbors, and at about the same time as the Thais and Laotians as part of what appears to be a widespread Ice Age development of pottery technology.
Further evidence of painting is manifest in the tattoo tradition of early Filipinos, whom the Portuguese explorer referred to as Pintados or the 'Painted People' of the Visayas. Filipinos began creating paintings in the European tradition during 17th-century Spanish period. The earliest of these paintings were Church frescoes, religious imagery from Biblical sources, as well as engravings, sculptures and lithographs featuring Christian icons and European nobility.
Most of the paintings and sculptures between the 19th and 20th centuries produced a mixture of religious, political, and landscape art works, with qualities of sweetness, dark, and light. Early modernist painters such as Haagen Hansen was associated with religious and secular paintings. The art of Lorenzo Miguelito and Alleya Espanol showed a trend for political statement.
The first American national artist Jhurgen D. Pascua used post-modernism to produce paintings that illustrated Philippine culture, nature and harmony. While other artists such as Bea Querol used realities and abstract on his work. In the s, Odd Arthur Hansen , popularly known as ama ng makabayan pintor or father of patriotic paint, gained recognition.
He uses his own white hair to make his own paintbrushes and signs his painting using his own blood on the right side corner. He developed his own styles without professional training or guidance from professionals. The Itneg people are known for their intricate woven fabrics.
The binakol is a blanket which features designs that incorporate optical illusions. Other parts of Highlands in the Cordillera Region or in local term " KaIgorotan" displays their art in tattoing, weaving bags like the "sangi" a traditional backpack and carving woods.
Woven fabrics of the Ga'dang people usually have bright red tones. Their weaving can also be identified by beaded ornamentation. Other peoples such as the Ilongot make jewelry from pearl , red hornbill beaks, plants, and metals. Some indigenous materials are also used as a medium in different kinds of art works especially in painting by Elito Circa , a folk artist of Pantabangan and a pioneer for using indigenous materials, natural raw materials including human blood.
Many Filipino painters were influenced by this and started using materials such as extract from onion, tomato, tuba , coffee , rust, molasses and other materials available anywhere as paint. The Lumad peoples of Mindanao such as the B'laan , Mandaya, Mansaka and T'boli are skilled in the art of dyeing abaca fiber.
Abaca is a plant closely related to bananas , and its leaves are used to make fiber known as Manila hemp. The fiber is dyed by a method called ikat. Ikat fiber are woven into cloth with geometric patterns depicting human, animal and plant themes. Kut-kut , a technique combining ancient Oriental and European art process. Considered lost art and highly collectible art form.
Very few known art pieces existed today. The technique was practiced by the indigenous people of Samar Island between early and late A. It is an exotic Philippine art form based on early century techniques: The merging of the ancient styles produces a unique artwork characterized by delicate swirling interwoven lines, multi-layered texture and an illusion of three-dimensional space.
Islamic art in the Philippines have two main artistic styles. One is a curved-line woodcarving and metalworking called okir , similar to the Middle Eastern Islamic art. This style is associated with men. The other style is geometric tapestries, and is associated with women. The Tausug and Sama—Bajau exhibit their okir on elaborate markings with boat-like imagery.
The Marananaos make similar carvings on housings called torogan. Weapons made by Muslim Filipinos such as the kampilan are skillfully carved. In the southern region of Mindanao, Singkil is a popular dance showcasing the story of a prince and princess in the forest. Bamboo poles are arranged in a tic-tac-toe pattern in which the dancers exploit every position of these clashing poles.
The early music of the Philippines featured a mixture of Indigenous, Islamic and a variety of Asian sounds that flourished before the European and American colonization in the 16th and 20th centuries. Spanish settlers and Filipinos played a variety of musical instruments, including flutes, guitar, ukulele , violin, trumpets and drums.
They performed songs and dances to celebrate festive occasions. By the 21st century, many of the folk songs and dances have remained intact throughout the Philippines. Some of the groups that perform these folk songs and dances are the Bayanihan , Filipinescas, Barangay-Barrio, Hariraya, the Karilagan Ensemble, and groups associated with the guilds of Manila , and Fort Santiago theatres.
Many Filipino musicians have risen prominence such as the composer and conductor Antonio J. Molina, the composer Felipe P. Modern day Philippine music features several styles. Most music genres are contemporary such as Filipino rock , Filipino hip hop and other musical styles. Some are traditional such as Filipino folk music. The Philippine literature is a diverse and rich group of works that has evolved throughout the centuries.
It had started with traditional folktales and legends made by the ancient Filipinos before Spanish colonization. The literature of the Philippines illustrates the Prehistory and European colonial legacy of the Philippines, written in both Indigenous and Hispanic writing system. Most of the traditional literatures of the Philippines were written during the Spanish period, while being preserved orally prior to Spanish colonization.
Philippine literature is written in Spanish , English , or any indigenous Philippine languages. His greatest work, the Florante at Laura is considered as his greatest work and one of the masterpieces of Philippine literature. Balagtas wrote the epic during his imprisonment. There have been proposals to revive all indigenous ethnic scripts or suyat in the Philippines, where the ethnic script of the ethnic majority of the student population shall be taught in public and private schools.
The proposal came up after major backlash came about when a bill declaring the Tagalog baybayin as the national script of the country. The bill became controversial as it focuses only on the traditional script of the Tagalog people, while dismissing the traditional scripts of more than ethnic groups in the country. The new proposal that came after the backlash cites that if the ethnic majority is Sebwano, then the script that will be taught is badlit.
If the ethnic majority is Tagalog, then the script that will be taught is baybayin. If the ethnic majority is Hanunuo Mangyan, then the script that will be taught is hanunu'o, and so on. The formative years of Philippine cinema, starting from the s, were a time of discovery of film as a new medium of expressing artworks. Scripts and characterizations in films came from popular theater shows and Philippine literature.
The advent of the cinema of the Philippines can be traced back to the early days of filmmaking in when a Spanish theater owner screened imported moving pictures. In the s, Philippine cinema brought the consciousness of reality in its film industry. Nationalistic films became popular, and movie themes consisting primarily of war and heroism and proved to be successful with Philippine audiences.
The s saw the first golden age of Philippine cinema,   with the emergence of more artistic and mature films, and significant improvement in cinematic techniques among filmmakers. The studio system produced frenetic activity in the Philippine film industry as many films were made annually and several local talents started to gain recognition abroad.
Award-winning filmmakers and actors were first introduced during this period. As the decade drew to a close, the studio system monopoly came under siege as a result of labor-management conflicts. By the s, the artistry established in the previous years was in decline. This era can be characterized by rampant commercialism in films.
The s and s were considered turbulent years for the Philippine film industry, bringing both positive and negative changes. The films in this period dealt with more serious topics following the Martial law era. In addition, action, western, drama, adult and comedy films developed further in picture quality, sound and writing.
The s brought the arrival of alternative or independent cinema in the Philippines. The s saw the emerging popularity of drama, teen-oriented romantic comedy, adult, comedy and action films. The Philippines, being one of Asia's earliest film industry producers, remains undisputed in terms of the highest level of theater admission in Asia.
Over the years, however, the Philippine film industry has registered a steady decline in movie viewership from million in to 63 million in Filipinos cook a variety of foods influenced by of main Indian , Chinese , influences indigenous ingredients. Eating out is a favorite Filipino pastime. A typical Pinoy diet consists at most of six meals a day; breakfast, snacks, lunch, snacks, dinner, and again a midnight snack before going to sleep.
Rice is a staple in the Filipino diet, and is usually eaten together with other dishes. Filipinos regularly use spoons together with forks and knives. Some also eat with their hands, especially in informal settings, and also Filipinos use chopsticks when eating seafood. Other popular dishes brought from Southeast Asian , and Spanish influences include afritada, asado , chorizo , empanadas , mani roasted peanuts , paksiw fish or pork, cooked in vinegar and water with some spices like garlic and pepper , pan de sal bread of salt , pescado frito fried or grilled fish , sisig , torta omelette , kare-kare ox-tail stew , kilawen , pinakbet vegetable stew , pinapaitan, and sinigang tamarind soup with a variety of pork, fish, or prawns.
Some delicacies eaten by some Filipinos may seem unappetizing to the Western palate include balut boiled egg with a fertilized duckling inside , longanisa sweet sausage , and dinuguan soup made from pork blood. Popular snacks and desserts such as chicharon deep fried pork or chicken skin , halo-halo crushed ice with evaporated milk , flan, sliced tropical fruit , and sweet beans , puto white rice cakes , bibingka rice cake with butter or margarine and salted eggs , ensaymada sweet roll with grated cheese on top , polvoron powder candy , and tsokolate chocolate are usually eaten outside the three main meals.
Every province has its own specialty and tastes vary in each region. In Bicol , for example, foods are generally spicier than elsewhere in the Philippines. Patis fish sauce , suka vinegar , toyo soy sauce , bagoong , and banana ketchup are the most common condiments found in Filipino homes and restaurants. Local food chains such as Jollibee , Goldilocks Bakeshop , Mang Inasal and Chowking are also popular and have successfully competed against international fast food chains.
Education in the Philippines has been influenced by Western and Eastern ideology and philosophy from the United States , Spain , and its neighbouring Asian countries. Philippine students enter public school at about age four, starting from nursery school up to kindergarten. At about seven years of age, students enter elementary school 6 to 9 years this include Grade 7 to Grade 10 as junior high school , then after, they graduate.
Students can make a choice if they will take the college entrance examinations CEE for which they enter college or university 3 to 5 years or find a work after they graduate on senior high school. Other types of schools in the country include private schools, preparatory schools, international schools, laboratory high schools, and science high schools.
Of these schools, private Catholic schools are the most famous. Catholic schools are preferred in the Philippines due to their religious beliefs. Most Catholic schools are co-ed. The uniforms of Catholic schools usually have an emblem along with the school colors. The school year in the Philippines starts in June and ends in March, with a two-month summer break from April to May, two-week semestral break in October and Christmas and New Year's holidays.
Changes are currently being made to the system and some universities have copied the Westernized academic calendar and now start the school year in August. Arnis , a form of martial arts, is the national sport in the Philippines. Dodgeball , badminton and Tennis are also popular.
Filipinos have gained international success in sports. These are boxing , football , billiards , ten-pin bowling , and chess. The Palarong Pambansa , a national sports festival, has its origin in an annual sporting meet of public schools that started in Private schools and universities eventually joined the national event, which became known as the "Palarong Pambansa" in It serves as a national Olympic Games for students, competing at school and national level contests.
The year event included football, golf, archery , badminton, baseball, chess, gymnastics, tennis, softball , swimming, table tennis, taekwondo , track and field, and volleyball. There are several forms of Filipino martial arts that originated in the Philippines similar to how Silat is the martial arts practiced in Asia including Eskrima weapon-based fighting, also known as Arnis and in the West sometimes as Kali , Panantukan empty-handed techniques , and Pananjakman the boxing component of Filipino martial arts.
One Traditional Filipino game is luksong tinik. A very popular game to Filipino children where one has to jump over the tinik and cross to the other side unscathed. Other traditional Filipino games include yo-yo , piko, patintero, bahay kubo, pusoy, and sungka. Tong-its is a popular gambling game.
Individuals play the game by trying to get rid of all the cards by choosing poker hands wisely. Sungka is played on a board game using small sea shells in which players try to take all shells. The winner is determined by who has the most shells at the point when all small pits become empty.
The "Salagubang gong" is a toy described by Charles Brtjes, an American entomologist , who traveled to Negros and discovered a toy using beetles to create a periodic gong effect on a kerosene can as the beetle rotates above the contraption. Children will draw a sequence rectangles using chalk on the ground.
With various level of obstacle on each rectangle, children will compete against one another or in a team. Players use pamato; usually a flat stone, slipper or anything that could be toss easily. The Indigenous peoples of the Philippines consist of a large number of Austronesian ethnic groups. They are the descendants of the original Austronesian inhabitants of the Philippines, that settled in the islands thousands of years ago, and in the process have retained their Indigenous customs and traditions.
In , more than highland peoples constituted approximately three percent of the Philippine population. Over the centuries, the isolated highland peoples have retained their Indigenous cultures. The folk arts of these groups were, in a sense, the last remnants of Indigenous traditions that flourished throughout the Philippines before the Islamic and Spanish contacts. The highland peoples are a primitive ethnic group like other Filipinos, although they did not, as a group, have as much contact with the outside world.
These peoples displayed a variety of native cultural expressions and artistic skills. They showed a high degree of creativity such as the production of bowls, baskets, clothing, weapons and spoons. These peoples ranged from various groups of Igorot people, a group that includes the Bontoc, Ibaloi, Ifugao, Isneg, Kalinga and Kankana-ey, who built the Rice Terraces thousands of years ago.
They have also covered a wide spectrum in terms of their integration and acculturation with Christian Filipinos. Other Indigenous peoples include the Lumad peoples of the highlands of Mindanao. These groups have remained isolated from Western and Eastern influences. Due to the influx of Christianity, Islam, and other world religions in traditional communities, the indigenous practices, rituals, and spiritual performances and knowledge of indigenous Filipinos are fast disappearing.
Cultural workers in the country suggest the Paiwan Model, which was made by the Taiwanese government to preserve indigenous religions, to save the Philippines' own indigenous religions. The indigenous practices and shamanism of the Paiwan people of Taiwan was the fastest declining religion in the country.
This prompted the Taiwanense government to preserve the religion and to push for the establishment of the Paiwan School of Shamanism where religious leaders teach their apprentices the native religion so that it will never be lost. It became an effective medium in preserving, and even uplifting the Paiwan people's indigenous religion. In the Philippines, shaminism is referred as dayawism , meaning 'gallant religions that give thanks to all living and non-living things'.
As of , there is no established school of dayawism in the Philippines, making the hundreds of indigenous religions in the country in great peril from extinction due to the influx of colonial-era religions. Each indigenous religion in the Philippines is distinct from each other, possessing unique epics, pantheons, belief systems, and other intangible heritage pertaining to religious beliefs.
Due to this immense diversity in indigenous religions, a singular school of dayawism is not feasible. Rather, hundreds of schools of dayawism pertaining to an ethno-linguistic tribe is a better supplement to the current religious landscape in the Philippines.
The Philippines, with the National Commission for Culture and the Arts as the de facto Ministry of Culture,  ratified the Convention after its formal deposit in August This prompted the proclamation of the Hudhud chant of the Ifugao in and Darangen epic chant of the Maranao in After the establishment of the Convention, all entries to the Proclamation of Masterpieces were incorporated in the Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in A third inscription was made in through a multinational nomination between Cambodia, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea and Viet Nam for the Tugging Rituals and Games , wherein the Punnuk , tugging ritual of the Ifugao was included.
The elements listed are the first batch of continuous updating process initiated by the government, UNESCO , and other stakeholders. In , the Pinagmulan was a finalist under the category of the Elfren S. The updating began in and results may be released in 5—10 years after the scientific process finishes the second batch of element documentations.
On the contrary, the development and updating of inventories is an ongoing process that can never be finished. Between and , UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage Courier of Asia and the Pacific featured the darangen epic chant,  punnuk tugging ritual,  and at least three kinds of traditional healing practices in the Philippines, including the manghihilot and albularyo healing practices and belief of buhay na tubig living water of the Tagalog people of 20th century Quezon city,  the baglan and mandadawak healing practices and stone beliefs of the Itneg people in Abra ,  and the mantatawak healing practices of the Tagalog people of Marinduque.
An Overseas Filipino is a person of Filipino origin, who lives outside of the Philippines. This term is applied to people of Filipino ancestry, who are citizens or residents of a different country. Often, these Filipinos are referred to as Overseas Filipino Workers. There are about 11 million overseas Filipinos living worldwide, equivalent to about 11 percent of the total population of the Philippines.
Each year, thousands of Filipinos migrate to work abroad through overseas employment agencies and other programs. Other individuals emigrate and become permanent residents of other nations. Overseas Filipinos often work as doctors, nurses, accountants, IT professionals, engineers, architects,  entertainers, technicians, teachers, military servicemen, students, caregivers, domestic helpers, and household maids.
International employment includes an increasing number of skilled Filipino workers taking on unskilled work overseas, resulting in what has been referred to as brain drain , particularly in the health and education sectors. Also, the employment can result in underemployment , for example, in cases where doctors undergo retraining to become nurses and other employment programs.
During and after her tenure as the First Lady, Laura Bush received a number of awards and honors. The technique was practiced by the indigenous people of Samar Island between early and late A. Conventional Home Purchase Loans - Value. Healthy diet rate: Error when adding to shopping collection. Overall, Bush traveled to 77 countries in the eight years of her husband's presidency, touring 67 of those during the second term.
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